P Layer-3 (Unicast) - Access control, authentication (data origin authentication and connectionless integrity), packet anti-replay protection, confidentiality through encryption, and limited traffic flow confidentiality.




IPSec Microsoft links

IPSec Cisco links

IPSec Guides links




Using IPSec, Win2K/XP 1 (pdf)

Using IPSec, Win2K/XP 2 (pdf)

Using IPSec, Win2K/XP 3 (pdf)


IBM VPN Guide (pdf)

IKE protocol (pdf)

Cisco IPSec (pdf)

IPSec Encryption (pdf)

IPSec Linux (pdf)

Common VPN Security Flaws (pdf)

Key Exchange Thesis (pdf)

Encryption/IPSec (pdf)

Cryptography/IPSec Details (pdf)

RandomNumbers (pdf)

IPSec (doc)


DH shockwave


IPSec / IKE Tools













IPSecTrace DWN


VPNMonitor DWN


KeyMan (JAVA)








home mail contact Us site map

Microsoft TechNet - IPSecurity

Cisco IPSec Support page

IPSec - Arch, Modes, Protocols, Formats, IKE Exchanges


Virtual Private Network Consortium, VPNC (International)


SecurityFocus - IPSec in Windows, part I

SecurityFocus - IPSec in Windows, part II

SecurityFocus - IPSec in Windows, part III


IBM Redbook - VPN Cross-Platform Management

Architecture for Internet Key Exchange Protocol - IBM

Cisco IPSec Network Security

Cisco IPSec Encryption

Implementing site-to-site IPSec (Cisco to Linux FreeS/WAN)

IPSec Flaws - Whitepaper

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange: Theory and Practice

Cryptography: Theory/Practice - Encryption in IPSec

Cryptography 101, IPSec Intro

Random Numbers in Cryptography- presentation

Microsoft Windows Server 2003 - IP Protocol Security


Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange - Shockwave



IKE Scanning tool (Linux, Windows), cmd line

IKE-scan tool does two things - Discovery: Determine which hosts are running IKE.

This is done by displaying those hosts which respond to the IKE requests sent by ike-scan.
Fingerprinting: Determine which IKE implementation the host(s) are using.
This is done by recording the times of the IKE response packets from the target hosts and comparing the observed retransmission backoff pattern against known patterns.


IKE Probe (PSK vulnerability Scanner), cmd line

IKE Crack (calculates SKEYID / HASH_r), perl script

IKECrack utilizies the HASH sent in Aggressive Mode, step 2, and attempts a real-time bruteforce of the PSK. This involves a HMAC-MD5 of the PSK with nonce values to determine the SKEYID, and a HMAC-MD5 of the SKEYID with DH pubkeys, cookies, ID, and SA proposal.


IPSecTrace - profiles IPSec traffic in a pcap capture file


VPN Monitor Tool - IPSec/PPTP net traffic observer


KeyMan - PKI client tool, manages keys/certificates/CRLs

KeyMan manages repositories which contain collections of keys, certificates, and revocation lists. A repository is called a token. A token comprises the trust settings for a particular application. Usually, a token contains private keys and the associated certificate chains to authenticate a user to other sites. In addition, a token holds certificates of trusted communication partners and certification authorities (CAs).
KeyMan requires JDK 1.2 or higher.




Wireshark Capture Filter (IPSec) ESP and IKE exchange traffic:

 ip proto 0x32 or dst port 500







IPSec Graphics



Multiple PDF Graphics - IPSec topics





IPSec IKEv1 RFC's (IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force)


RFC 2401

RFC 2402


RFC 2403

RFC 2404

RFC 2405


RFC 2406


RFC 2407

RFC 2408

RFC 2409


RFC 2410

RFC 2411

RFC 2412


RFC 2451

RFC 2857

RFC 3526



Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol (IKEv1)

IP Authentication Header (AH)


HMAC-MD5-96 within ESP an AH (Authentication)

HMAC-SHA-1-96 within ESP an AH (Authentication)

ESP DES-CBC Cipher Algorithm with Explicit IV (Encryption)


IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)


IPSec Domain of Interpretation for ISAKMP (IPSec DOI) - key exchange

Internet Security Association & Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)

Internet Key Exchange (IKEv1) Protocol


NULL Encryption Algorithm

IP Security Documentation Roadmap

OAKLEY Key Determination Protocol - IKE Key Exchange


ESP CBC-Mode Cipher Algorithms

Use of HMAC-RIPEMD-160-96 within ESP and AH

Modular Exponential Diffie-Hellman groups - (6) DH groups 5, 14-18


IPSec IKEv2 RFC's (IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force)


RFC 4301

RFC 4302

RFC 4303

RFC 4304

RFC 4305

RFC 4306

RFC 4307

RFC 4308

RFC 4309


RFC 4478

RFC 4718

RFC 4809

RFC 4835

RFC 4945



Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol (IKEv2)

IP Authentication Header (AH)

IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESPv3)

Extended Sequence Number (ESN) Addendum to IPsec (DOI)

Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation Requirements for ESP and AH

Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol

Cryptographic Algorithms for Use in the IKEv2

Cryptographic Suites for IPsec

Using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) CCM Mode w IPsec ESP


Repeated Authentication in Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol

IKEv2 Clarifications and Implementation Guidelines

Requirements for an IPsec Certificate Management Profile

Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation Requirements for ESP/AH

The Internet IP Security PKI Profile of IKEv1/ISAKMP, IKEv2, and PKIX


Related RFC's (IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force)


RFC 792


RFC 1112

RFC 2236




Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)


Host extensions for IP multicasting (IGMP)

Internet Group Management Protocol, Ver 2



By default, the SA proposal contains 8 transforms.

   These 8 transforms represent all possible combinations of:

a) Encryption Algorithm: DES-CBC and 3DES-CBC;
Hash Algorithm: MD5 and SHA; and
DH Group: 1 (MODP 768) and 2 (MODP 1024).
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