Citing Electronic Sources in APA Style

http://www.awlonline.com/englishpages/cyber3.htm


Titles of books, journals, and volume numbers may be shown either in italics or with underlining.

Abstract

Luh, K. E., & Gooding, D. C. (1999). Perceptual biases in psychosis-prone individuals [Abstract]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 50. Retrieved August 21, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.apa.org/journals/abn/5999ab.html#10

Advertisement

Dessey Creations. (1999). Butterfly in Miami [Advertisement]. Retrieved August 24, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www .butterflyinmiami.com/add1.htm

Anonymous Article

Health-care inflation: It's baaack! (1999, March 17). Business Week. Retrieved August 28, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.businessweek .com/1997/11/b351852.htm

Archive or Scholarly Project
A general reference can be made in your text:

An excellent jumping off place for social psychology is the Social Psychology Archives (http://swix.ch/clan/ks/CPSP.htm).

Reference to a specific article in the archives will be made in the bibliography:

Alicke, M. D., LoSchiavo, F. M., Zerbst, J. L., & Zhang, S. (1997). The person who outperforms me is a genius: Maintaining perceived competence in upward social comparison [Abstract]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 781-789. Retrieved September 12, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.psych.purdue.edu/~esmith/ arcpaps.html

Article from a Scholarly Journal

Miller. B. A., Smyth, N. J., & Mudar, P. J. (1999). Mothers' alcohol and other drug problems and their punitiveness toward their children. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60(5), 632-642. Retrieved September 28, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.ncbi.nlm.hih.gov.htbin

Cartoon

Adams, S. (1999, August 15). The pointy-haired boss wants to see you. Dilbert. Retrieved August 24, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://umweb2. unitedmedia.com/comics/dilbert/ archive/ cal-35.html

Chapter or Portion of a Book
Often, sections and chapters of larger works will have their own URL, so you can send your reader directly to the part cited rather than the home page or title page:

Moghaddam, F. M., & Studer, C. (1997). Cross cultural psychology: The frustrated gadfly's promises, potentialities and failures (Chapter 12). In D. Fox & I. Prilleltensky (Eds.), Critical psychology: An introduction. Retrieved September 15, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.uis.edu/~fox/ critpsy/book3.html

Database

Bowles, M. D. (1998). The organization man goes to college: AT&T's experiment in humanistic education, 1953-60. The Historian, 61, 15+. Retrieved August 24, 1999, from DIALOG on-line database (#88, IAC Business A.R.T.S., Item 04993186)

Database, CD-ROM
For a full-text article found on CD-ROM, use the following form:

Wakschlag, L. S., & Leventhal, B. L. (1996). Consultation with young autistic children and their families. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 963-65. Retrieved August 24, 1999, from INFOTRAC database (Expanded Academic Index, CD-ROM, Item A18486937)

Wessel, D. (1995, February 2). Fed lifts rates half point, setting four-year high. Wall Street Journal, p. A2+. Retrieved August 24, 1999, from UMI-ProQuest database (Wall Street Journal Ondisc, CD-ROM, Item 34561)


If you cite from the abstract only, use this form:

Figueredo, A. J., & McCloskey, L. A. (1993) Sex, money, and paternity: The evolutionary psychology of domestic violence. Ethnology and Sociobiology, 14, 353-79. Abstract retrieved August 14, 1999, from Silverplatter database (PsychLIT, CD-ROM, Item 81-3654)

For an encyclopedia article on CD-ROM, use the following form:

"Abolitionist Movement." Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, CD-ROM. Softkey Multimedia. 1996.

Database Online

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. (1999). Retrieved August 19, 1999, from Encylopaedia Britannica Online (Vers. 99.1, 1994-1999) on the World Wide Web: http://eb.com/bol/topic?eu%136&sctn=1

Lee, C. C. (1998). The South in Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon: Initiation, healing, and home [Abstract]. Studies in the Literary Imagination, 31, 109-23. Retrieved September 19, 1999, from FirstSearch database (#BHUM99007521, Humanities Abstracts) on the World Wide Web: http:// firstsearch.oclc.org/next=NEXTCMD

Email
Cite email as you would a personal communication in your text, not in your bibliography. Provide initials as well as a specific date:

W. A. Walters (personal communication, September 11, 1999) stated that. . .

Encyclopedia Online

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. 1999. Retrieved August 19, 1999, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online (Vers. 99.1, 1994-1999) on the World Wide Web: http://www.eb.com/bol/topic?eu=25136&sctn=1

ERIC Database

America's children: Key national indicators of well-being. (1999). Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. Retrieved September 15, 1999, from ERIC database (ED 427897): http://ericir.syr.edu/plweb-cgi /fastweb

Film, Video, or Film Clip

A light still bright: Video on the ecumenical patriarchate of Constantinople. (1996). The History of the Orthodox Christian Church. Retrieved September 11, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.goarch.org/goa/ departments/gotel/online_videos.html#LIGHT

FTP, Telnet, and Gopher Sites

Kranidiotis, A. A. (1994, June 7). Human audio perception frequently asked questions. Human Audio Perception Discussion Group [On-line serial]. Retrieved March 11, 1997, from: ftp://svr-ftp.eng.cam.ac.uk/pub/com. speech/ingo/HumanAudioPerception

Home Page for a Web Site
Since you are not citing a specific article, you can refer to home pages in your text, not in the bibliography.

Links to several professional sites are listed at the home page of Frank M. LoSchiavo (http://www.netreach.net/!losh)

Interview

Strassman, M. (1998). Is journalism dead? [Interview with P. Hamill, author of New is a verb.] BookRadio. Retrieved August 24, 1998, from the World Wide Web: http://www.bookradio.com/

Journal Article
See "Article from a Scholarly Journal."

Letter

Strickland, R. A. (1999, August 22). [Letter to the editor]. New York Times on the Web. Retrieved August 24, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/ day/letter/1stric.html

Linkage Data (an accessed file)

What happens to recycled plastics? (1996). Lkd. Better World Discussion Topics at Recycling Discussion Group [On-line serial]. Retrieved June 18, 1997, from the World Wide Web: http://www.betterworld.com/BWZ/9602/learn.htm

Magazine Article Online

"People: Your Greatest Asset." (1999). Human Resources. Retrieved September 11, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://home.netscape/business/humanresources .html

Manuscript

Ganus, J. (1999). In the clouds of Isnos: Prologue [Manuscript]. Retrieved September 29, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.xenosbooks.com/isnos.html

Map

Upham, W. P. (1866). Map of Salem village. Witchcraft in Salem Village. Electronic Text Center. U of Virginia. Retrieved September 15, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/salem/ witchcraft/map.htm

MOO, MUD, and Other Chat Rooms

Virtual conference on Mary Shelley's The Last Man. (1997, September 13). Villa Diodati at EmoryMOO [On-line serial]. Retrieved August 24, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.rc.umd.edu/villa/vc97/Shelley_ 9_13_97.html

Newsgroup, Usenet News, Forum

Anders, J. (1997, February 21). Global warming/climate change: A new approach. Institute of Marine Research. Retrieved March 11, 1999, from Usenet: cgi-bin/news?msg@44430/sci. environment/330DE368.4CCS@imr.no

Newspaper or Newsletter Article, Column, or Editorial

Weisman, S. R. (1999, August 22). A debate over wealth, virtue and justice. New York Times on the Web. Retrieved September 11, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/editorial/wwSun3.html

Alessi, N. (1998, January). From hobbyists to professionals: Our destiny. The Psychiatric Society for Informatics Newsletter, 2, 1, 7. Retrieved September 14, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.psychinformatics.org/ newsletter/index.html

Online Posting for Email Discussion Group

Camilleri, R. (1997, March 10). Narrative biography. H-Rhetoric [On-line serial]. Retrieved March 11, 1998, from email: H-RHETOR@msu.edu

Photo, Painting, or Sculpture

Farrar, R. (1999). Windsor castle [Photograph]. Retrieved August 24, 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://jrfarrar.demon. co.uk/town/tll.htm

Gold shield, African coast [African sculpture]. (1997). U of Pennsylvania Museum. Retrieved August 24, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_ Studies/sculpture/gdsld_akan.gif

Report

Watkins, R. E. (1992). An historical review of the role and practice of psychology in the field of corrections (Report No. R-28). Correctional Service of Canada. Retrieved September 12, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/crd/reports/r28e/r28e.htm

Serial

Frank, L. (1997, March 5). Worker: "I didn't get that at home." Investigation into illnesses around the nation's nuclear weapons sites [On-line serial]. Tennessean.com. Retrieved September 15, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tennessean.com/special/oakridge/part3/fram/shtml

Sound Clip or Recording

McCarthy, J. (1999, August 24). Turkey. All Things Considered. NPROnline. Retrieved August 24, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://search.npr.org/cf/cmn/pcmnpd01fm.cfm ?PrgDate/20/1999+prg1D=2

Web Site, General Reference
As long as you are not citing a specific article but merely making reference to a site, provide the address in your text, not on the bibliography.

Further information about this program can be found at the Web site for the Department of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside (http://www.uwp.edu/academic/psychology).

Working Paper

Andrade, G., & Stafford, E. (1999). Investigating the economic role of mergers. Harvard Business School of Working Papers 1999-2000. Retrieved August 24, 1999, from the World Wide Web: http://www.hbs.edu/dor/papers1990.html